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ISTORIJA Nošnja (2. deo)


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ISTORIJA Nošnja (2. deo)

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Listajući albume, možemo da uočimo da na odeći Hrvata u Banatu nema sačuvanih tragova hrvatske nošnje iz starog zavičaja. Tradicionalna odeća kakvu vidimo na starim fotografijama, formirala se ao i odeća ostalih etničkih grupa na prostoru Banata i ima izrazite panonske osobine. Plodna vojvođanska ravnica pružala je stanovništvu obilje žitarica i hrane, a time i ekonomsku sigurnost i bogatstvo. Ono se odražavalo u odeći koja je bila izrađena od skupocenih tkanina, bogato nabrana i višeslojna. Temeljno ruho bilo je izrađeno od belog platna, od kog se po tankoći i izvrsnom umeću tkanja isticalo pamučno, polu svileno i vrlo tanko pamučno platno s uzdužnim prugama (tzv. Srpsko platno, ili misir). Ostali delovi odeće bili su izrađeni od belog, tamno smeđeg i crnog sukna, ovčije kože s runom, vune, ili pamuka, te ukrašeni svilenim, zlatnim, ili srebrnim koncem. Pod snažnim uticajem evropskih modnih stilova i tradicionalnog odevanja naroda s kojima su zajednički živeli na ovim prostorima u drugoj polovini 19. veka i u hrvatski odevni inventar ulaze tkanine fabričke izrade i krojevi gradske evropske mode. U ženskoj nošnji to su dugačka suknja i bluza, a u muškoj nošnji sukneni haljeci zamenjeni su štofanim odelima zanatske izrade.

Dok u većini spomenutih sela gotovo i nema hrvatskog stanovništva, u Boki, Neuzini, Opovu i danas žive Hrvati, ali su sačuvali malo elemenata tradicionalne kulture. Hrvatska zajednica u Starčevu najmasovnija je i najbolje je sačuvala mnogobrojne segmente duhovne i materijalne kulture, te svest o nacionalnoj pripadnosti. Dok su se u većini drugih sela mogle pronaći eventualno fotografije iz starih porodičnih albuma, u Starčevu je, uz opsežnu fotodokumentaciju, bilo lako pronaći kazivače koji su u mladosti nosili tradicionalnu odeću, ili su dobro sačuvali sećanja na nošnju svojih predaka."

Ženska svečana odeća

Temeljni delovi ženske odeće su bluza, opleće i podsuknja, untrok. Opleće je bluza izrađena od belog pamučnog fabričkog platna, šifona, pargara, ili usnivanog misira, ili srpskog platna domaće izrade, dugačka do struka, s rukavima koji su dosezali do ispod lakata. Oko okruglog vratnog otvora i na krajevima rukava bila je ukrašena belim bušenim vezom, šlingerajem. Podsuknja untrok bila je izrađena od fabričkog platna s prorezom na zadnjoj strani, nabrana u struku gde se vezala uzicama. U svečanim prilikama nosile su se najmanje tri podsuknje - najdonja uža i kratka do kolena, a druge dve šire i duže. Najgornja je bila široka oko četiri metra i uz donju ivicu ukrašena šlingom u obliku trouglastih, ili polukružnih motiva.

Osim podsuknje oblačila se i suknja. Najsvečanije su bile od tkanine kadife, kadivske suknje, a mogle su biti i od pliša, brokat svile, štofa, pamučnog cica i drugih materijala. Početkom 20. veka suknje su bile duže, gotovo do zemlje, pa su pokrivale untroke. S vremenom se dužina sukanja skraćivala otkrivajući šlinge na podsuknjama. Suknja je bila ravna, u struku nabrana, a iznad donje ivice mogla je biti ukrašena vodoravnim naborima preborima, faltama. Po uzoru na modu starčevačkih Nemica, i Hrvatice počinju da nose uzdužno nabrane faltane suknje koje su bile najčešće bele boje.

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